Cell migration is a complex process that involves coordinated changes in membrane transport and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Ras-like small monomeric GTPases, such as Rap2, play a key role in regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesions. However, how Rap2 function, localization, and activation are regulated during cell migration is not fully understood. We previously identified the small GTPase Rab40b as a regulator of breast cancer cell migration. Rab40b contains a suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box, which facilitates binding to Cullin5, a known E3 ubiquitin ligase component responsible for protein ubiquitylation. In this study, we show that the Rab40b/Cullin5 complex ubiquitylates Rap2. Importantly, we demonstrate that ubiquitylation regulates Rap2 activation as well as recycling of Rap2 from the endolysosomal compartment to the lamellipodia of migrating breast cancer cells. Based on these data, we propose that Rab40b/Cullin5 ubiquitylates and regulates Rap2-dependent actin dynamics at the leading edge, a process that is required for breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

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