The lysosome is the major catabolic organelle in the cell that has been established as a key metabolic signaling center. Mutations in many lysosomal proteins have catastrophic effects and cause neurodegeneration, cancer, and age-related diseases. The vacuole is the lysosomal analog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that harbors many evolutionary conserved proteins. Proteins reach vacuoles via the Vps10-dependent endosomal vacuolar protein sorting pathway, via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP or AP-3) pathway, and via the cytosol-to-vacuole transport (CVT) pathway. A systematic understanding of the cargo spectrum of each pathway is completely lacking. Here, we use quantitative proteomics of purified vacuoles to generate the yeast lysosomal biogenesis map. This dataset harbors information on the cargo–receptor relationship of almost all vacuolar proteins. We map binding motifs of Vps10 and the AP-3 complex and identify a novel cargo of the CVT pathway under nutrient-rich conditions. Our data show how organelle purification and quantitative proteomics can uncover fundamental insights into organelle biogenesis.

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