Traction forces produced by moving fibroblasts have been observed as distortions in flexible substrata including wrinkling of thin, silicone rubber films. Traction forces generated by fibroblast lamellae were thought to represent the forces required to move the cell forwards. However, traction forces could not be detected with faster moving cell types such as leukocytes and growth cones (Harris, A. K., D. Stopak, and P. Wild. 1981. Nature (Lond.). 290:249-251). We have developed a new assay in which traction forces produced by rapidly locomoting fish keratocytes can be detected by the two-dimensional displacements of small beads embedded in the plane of an elastic substratum. Traction forces were not detected at the rapidly extending front edge of the cell. Instead the largest traction forces were exerted perpendicular to the left and right cell margins. The maximum traction forces exerted by keratocytes were estimated to be approximately 2 x 10(-8) N. The pattern of traction forces can be related to the locomotion of a single keratocyte in terms of lamellar contractility and area of close cell-substratum contact.

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