On the cover
Electron microscopy of a budding yeast cell illustrates the de novo biogenesis of double-membraned vesicles used for autophagy and the related Cvt pathway. A cluster of vesicles and tubules forms around an electron-dense structure corresponding to the Cvt complex, which contains aminopeptidase I oligomers destined for the yeast vacuole.
See page 1005.
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In This Issue
β-Catenin gets an honorable discharge
Wnt signaling component is removed from active duty by exosomes.
People & Ideas
Noboru Mizushima: All about autophagy
Mizushima explores the physiological roles of self-eating.
Cdc48/p97 and Shp1/p47 regulate autophagosome biogenesis in concert with ubiquitin-like Atg8
Cdc48/p97/VCP plays a ubiquitin-independent role during autophagosome formation in S. cerevisiae.
Elm1 kinase activates the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4
Elm1 phosphorylates a conserved residue within the Kin4 kinase domain to coordinate spindle position with cell cycle progression.
Quantitative image analysis identifies pVHL as a key regulator of microtubule dynamic instability
The product of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting GTPase activity.
An Atg9-containing compartment that functions in the early steps of autophagosome biogenesis
A reservoir of Atg9-containing vesicles and tubules provides the initial membranes necessary for autophagophore formation in yeast.
α-Synuclein impairs macroautophagy: implications for Parkinson’s disease
α-Synuclein impairs autophagosome formation and mislocalizes Atg9 by inhibiting Rab1a.
Drosophila IAP antagonists form multimeric complexes to promote cell death
Self- and hetero-association of the pro-apoptotic proteins Reaper, Hid, and Grim is required for efficient induction of the cell death program.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ regulates membrane fission of Golgi carriers for selective cytokine secretion
The PI3K isoform p110δ is required for TNF trafficking and secretion.
Two distinct secretory vesicle–priming steps in adrenal chromaffin cells
The calcium-dependent activator proteins for secretion, CAPS1 and CAPS2, facilitate syntaxin opening during synaptic vesicle priming.
Exosome release of β-catenin: a novel mechanism that antagonizes Wnt signaling
The tetraspanins CD9 and CD82 suppress Wnt signaling by promoting the discharge of β-catenin from cells.
Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production
Both the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene and collagen 1α2 are targets of the transcription factor Fra-2, which controls bone formation.
Fibrillin-1 and -2 differentially modulate endogenous TGF-β and BMP bioavailability during bone formation
Extracellular microfibrils composed of fibrillin-1 and -2 regulate bone formation through modulation of TGF-β and BMP signaling.