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Standard Abbreviations


2D, two-dimensional
3D, three-dimensional


A, ampere
   µA, microampere(s)
   mA, milliampere(s)
Å, angstrom (10-10 m)
aa, amino acid(s)
ADP, adenosine diphosphate
AMP, adenosine monophosphate
   cAMP, cyclic AMP
ANOVA, analysis of variance
AP, alkaline phosphatase
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase
a.u., arbitrary units


bp, base pair
BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine
BSA, bovine serum albumin


°C, degree Celsius
CaM, calmodulin
Cdk, cyclin-dependent kinase
CFP, cyan fluorescent protein
CHAPS, 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) diethy-ammonio-1 propanesulfonate
CHO, Chinese hamster ovary
Ci, curie(s)
   µCi, microcurie(s)
   mCi, millicurie(s)
cpm, counts per minute
cps, counts per second
CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
CTP, cytidine triphosphate


D/Da, dalton
   kD/kDa, kilodalton(s)
d, density
DAB, diaminobenzidine
DAG, diacylglycerol
DAPI, 6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole
DEAE, diethylaminoethyl
diam, diameter
DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
   cDNA, complementary DNA
DNase, deoxyribonuclease
DNP, dinitrophenyl
dpm, disintegrations per minute
dps, disintegrations per second
DTT, dithiothreitol


ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence
ECM, extracellular matrix
EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGF, epidermal growth factor
EGFP, enhanced GFP
EGTA, ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)- N,N'-tetraacetic acid
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM, electron microscopy
ER, endoplasmic reticulum
EST, expressed sequence tag


°F, degree Fahrenheit
FACS, BD fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FAK, focal adhesion kinase
F-actin, filamentous actin
FBS, fetal bovine serum
FCS, fetal calf serum
FGF, fibroblast growth factor
FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate
FRAP, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching


g, gram
g, unit of gravity
GAPDH, glyceraldhyde 3-phosphate dyhydrogenase
GDP, guanosine diphosphate
GFP, green fluorescent protein
GST, glutathione S-transferase
GTP, guanosine triphosphate
GTPase, guanosine triphosphatase


h/hr, hour
HA, hemagglutinin
HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution
Hepes/HEPES, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid
HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography
HRP, horseradish peroxidase


IFN, interferon
Ig, immunoglobulin
i.l., intraluminal(ly)
i.m., intramuscular(ly)
i.p., intraperitoneal(ly)
IPTG, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside
IU, international unit(s)
i.v., intravenous(ly)


JNK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase


kb, kilobase(s)
kbp, kilobase pair(s)


L, liter(s)
   but ml, milliliter(s)


m, meter
   µm, micrometer(s)
M, molar
mAb, monoclonal antibody
MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase
MDCK, Madin-Darby canine kidney
MEM, Eagle's minimum essential medium
MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid
min, minute
mo, month
MOI, multiplicity of infection
mol, mole(s)
mol wt/MW, molecular weight
MOPS, morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr, relative molecular mass
mRFP, monomeric RFP


N, normal (concentration of ionizable groups)
n, number in a study or group
NA, numerical aperture
NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH, NAD+ reduced
NADP, NAD+phosphate
NADPH, NADP reduced
NBD, nitrobenzoxadiazole
ND, not determined
NGF, nerve growth factor
NLS, nuclear localization signal
No., number
NS/ns, not significant
NSF, N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein
nt, nucleotide


OD, optical density
ORF, open reading frame
osM, osmolar


PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
PCA, perchloric acid
PCR, polymerase chain reaction
PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor
PFA, paraformaldehyde
Pi, inorganic orthophosphate
Pipes, [1,4-piperazinebis(ethane sulfonic acid)]
PKC, protein kinase C
PLC, phospholipase C
PMA, phorbol myristate acetate
PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride


r, correlation coefficient
RBC, red blood cell
RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum
RFP, red fluorescent protein
RIA, radioimmunoassay
RNA, ribonucleic acid
   gRNA, guide RNA
   mRNA, messenger RNA
   miRNA, micro RNA
   shRNA, short hairpin RNA
   siRNA, small interfering RNA
   tRNA, transfer RNA
RNAi, RNA interference
RNase, ribonuclease
RNP, ribonucleoprotein
rpm, revolutions per minute
RT, room temperature
RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR


s/sec, seconds(s)
s, sedimentation coefficient
S, Svedberg unit of sedimentation coefficient
SD, standard deviation
SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate
SEM, standard error of the mean
SNAP, soluble NSF attachment protein
SNARE, SNAP receptor
SSC, standard saline citrate
SV40, simian virus 40


t test, Student's t test
t1/2, half-life, half-time
TBS, Tris-buffered saline
TCA, trichloroacetic acid
TdR, thymidine deoxyribose
TGF, transforming growth factor
TGN, trans-Golgi network
TLC, thin layer chromatography
TNF, tumor necrosis factor (α)
TRITC, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate
Tris, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
t-SNARE, target membrane SNARE
TUNEL, Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling


U, unit
UDP, uridine diphosphate
UTP, uridine triphosphate
UTR, untranslated region
UV, ultraviolet


V, volt
VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor
vol, volume
v-SNARE, vesicle membrane SNARE


W, watt
WGA, wheat germ agglutinin
wk, week
wt, weight
WT, wild type


YFP, yellow fluorescent protein

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