Gain-of-function mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for a spectrum of autoinflammatory diseases collectively referred to as “cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes” (CAPS). Treatment of CAPS patients with IL-1–targeted therapies is effective, confirming a central pathogenic role for IL-1β. However, the specific myeloid cell population(s) exhibiting inflammasome activity and sustained IL-1β production in CAPS remains elusive. Previous reports suggested an important role for mast cells (MCs) in this process. Here, we report that, in mice, gain-of-function mutations in Nlrp3 restricted to neutrophils, and to a lesser extent macrophages/dendritic cells, but not MCs, are sufficient to trigger severe CAPS. Furthermore, in patients with clinically established CAPS, we show that skin-infiltrating neutrophils represent a substantial biological source of IL-1β. Together, our data indicate that neutrophils, rather than MCs, can represent the main cellular drivers of CAPS pathology.

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