Enterovirus (EV) infection rarely results in life-threatening infection of the central nervous system. We report two unrelated children with EV30 and EV71 rhombencephalitis. One patient carries compound heterozygous TLR3 variants (loss-of-function F322fs2* and hypomorphic D280N), and the other is homozygous for an IFIH1 variant (loss-of-function c.1641+1G>C). Their fibroblasts respond poorly to extracellular (TLR3) or intracellular (MDA5) poly(I:C) stimulation. The baseline (TLR3) and EV-responsive (MDA5) levels of IFN-β in the patients’ fibroblasts are low. EV growth is enhanced at early and late time points of infection in TLR3- and MDA5-deficient fibroblasts, respectively. Treatment with exogenous IFN-α2b before infection renders both cell lines resistant to EV30 and EV71, whereas post-infection treatment with IFN-α2b rescues viral susceptibility fully only in MDA5-deficient fibroblasts. Finally, the poly(I:C) and viral phenotypes of fibroblasts are rescued by the expression of WT TLR3 or MDA5. Human TLR3 and MDA5 are critical for cell-intrinsic immunity to EV, via the control of baseline and virus-induced type I IFN production, respectively.
Inborn errors of TLR3- or MDA5-dependent type I IFN immunity in children with enterovirus rhombencephalitis
Disclosures: The authors declare no competing interests exist.
- Award Id(s): UL1TR001866
- Award Id(s): ANR-10-IAHU-01
- Award Id(s): ANR-18-CE15-0020-02,ANR-19-CE15-0009-01,ANR-20-CE93-003
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Jie Chen, Huie Jing, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Paul Bastard, Jacques G. Rivière, Zhiyong Liu, Roger Colobran, Danyel Lee, Wesley Tung, Jeremy Manry, Mary Hasek, Soraya Boucherit, Lazaro Lorenzo, Flore Rozenberg, Mélodie Aubart, Laurent Abel, Helen C. Su, Pere Soler Palacin, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Shen-Ying Zhang; Inborn errors of TLR3- or MDA5-dependent type I IFN immunity in children with enterovirus rhombencephalitis. J Exp Med 6 December 2021; 218 (12): e20211349. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211349
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