Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is precisely controlled to avoid excessive activation. Although multiple molecules regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation have been revealed, the checkpoints governing NLRP3 inflammasome activation remain elusive. Here, we show that activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is governed by GSTO1-promoted ASC deglutathionylation in macrophages. Glutathionylation of ASC inhibits ASC oligomerization and thus represses activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, unless GSTO1 binds ASC and deglutathionylates ASC at ER, under control of mitochondrial ROS and triacylglyceride synthesis. In macrophages expressing ASCC171A, a mutant ASC without glutathionylation site, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is GSTO1 independent, ROS independent, and signal 2 less dependent. Moreover, AscC171A mice exhibit NLRP3-dependent hyperinflammation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that glutathionylation of ASC represses NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and GSTO1-promoted ASC deglutathionylation at ER, under metabolic control, is a checkpoint for activating NLRP3 inflammasome.

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