Infection is able to promote innate immunity by enhancing a long-term myeloid output even after the inciting infectious agent has been cleared. However, the mechanisms underlying such a regulation are not fully understood. Using a mouse polymicrobial peritonitis (sepsis) model, we show that severe infection leads to increased, sustained myelopoiesis after the infection is resolved. In post-infection mice, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) is constitutively upregulated. TIMP1 antagonizes the function of ADAM10, an essential cleavage enzyme for the activation of the Notch signaling pathway, which suppresses myelopoiesis. While TIMP1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis under the steady state, increased TIMP1 enhances myelopoiesis after infection. Thus, our data establish TIMP1 as a molecular reporter of past infection in the host, sustaining hyper myelopoiesis and serving as a potential therapeutic target for modulating HSPC cell fate.

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