Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a major mediator of inflammation, also possesses a wide pleiotropism of actions, suggesting its involvement in physiological conditions. TNF-alpha mRNA is present in mouse embryonic tissues and also in fetal thymus and spleen. Repeated injections of a monospecific polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF-alpha antibody in mice, starting either during pregnancy or at birth, led to a severe but transient growth retardation, already present at birth, reaching a 35% decrease in body weight at 3 wk, with complete recovery at 8 wk. The insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) blood levels were decreased to about 50%; growth hormone release and other endocrine functions were unaltered. A marked atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes was also observed, with lymphopenia and impaired development of T and B cell peripheral lymphoid structures. The pathways involving TNF-alpha in IGF-I release and early body growth are probably distinct from those by which TNF-alpha participates in early development of lymphoid tissues, where its low physiological release may contribute to enhance lymphoid cell expansion.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha is involved in mouse growth and lymphoid tissue development.
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S de Kossodo, G E Grau, T Daneva, P Pointaire, L Fossati, C Ody, J Zapf, P F Piguet, R C Gaillard, P Vassalli; Tumor necrosis factor alpha is involved in mouse growth and lymphoid tissue development.. J Exp Med 1 November 1992; 176 (5): 1259–1264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.5.1259
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