Pilocarpine-induced saliva of the tick, Ixodes dammini, inhibited platelet aggregation triggered by ADP and collagen, as well as platelet-aggregation factor. In addition, we found apyrase activity (which degrades ATP and ADP to AMP and orthophosphate) and an anticoagulant. We showed the presence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by bioassay and radioimmunoassay. This saliva inhibited interleukin 2 production by T cell hybridomas, an activity consistent with that of PGE2. A kininase was demonstrated, and this may counteract the algesia- and edema-promoting properties of PGE2. Together, these salivary components produce antihemostatic, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive effects that may facilitate feeding, as well as transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

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