Injection of rabbits with a human T cell line infected with HIV-1 caused seroconversion within 6 wk, and HIV-1 could be isolated from PBL cultures of infected rabbits. Identity of the isolated virus with HIV-1 was shown by analysis of products amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. HIV-1 infection was seen in rabbits injected with HIV-1-infected cells alone as well as in those that were first infected with HTLV-1 and subsequently with HIV-1. There were no consistent signs of disease in the rabbits infected with HIV-1 alone but HTLV-1/HIV-1-infected rabbits showed signs of illness including diarrhea and weight loss, transient neurologic impairment and, in one animal, a rapidly progressing mammary adenocarcinoma. Examination of organs taken at necropsy from both HIV-1- and HTLV-1/HIV-1-infected animals showed splenic hyperplasia and lymphocyte infiltration of the lungs, as well as moderate damage to liver and kidney in some cases.

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