Normal human kidney proximal tubule cells into which a ras oncogene was inserted undergo a series of transformation-related alterations that are characteristic of renal carcinomas. These include changes in morphology, growth potential, anchorage dependence, antigen expression, growth factor production, and chromosomal stability. Further, there are spontaneous progressive alterations in vitro in the karyotype and antigenic profile of the transformed cells. Cytogenetic analyses suggest that alterations of chromosome 21 may play an early and pivotal role in the development of transformed proximal tubule cells.

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