Although the CD4 glycoprotein is the primary receptor for HIV-1, recent reports have suggested that other molecules might be involved in the enhancement of HIV-1 infection. We investigated the possible role of the complement receptor 2 in enhancement of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ EBV-containing B cells by infecting such cells in the presence of sera from HIV sero-positive donors, with or without added human complement. A marked increase in production of viral p24 and infectious progeny virus was observed only when infection had been carried out in the presence of human complement. The addition of mAb to the human complement receptor 2 completely inhibited this enhancement. This mechanism was CD4 dependent, suggesting a cooperative effect between these two ligands in the potentiation of viral entry.

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