A monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) has been purified from TNF-stimulated 8387 human fibrosarcoma cell line-conditioned media. The purified MCAF showed microheterogeneity yielding two bands on SDS-PAGE analysis. Fibrosarcoma-derived MCAF specifically competed with THP-1 (a human monocytic cell line)-derived 125I-labeled MCAF in binding to human PBMC, whereas a similar basic heparin-binding leukocyte chemoattractant, IL-8, did not. The purified MCAF stimulated superoxide anion and N-acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase-releasing activity in human monocytes, as well as monocyte cytostatic augmenting activity against tumor cells and chemotactic activity for monocytes. When injected subcutaneously into Lewis rat ears, the purified human MCAF also induced considerable in vivo local monocyte infiltration beginning at 3 h and becoming maximal at 18 h. In conclusion, the data presented in this paper indicate that MCAF is a potent activator of monocytes as well as a monocyte recruitment factor that acts through receptors that are specific for this novel molecule. This novel cytokine might have an important role in tumor growth control due to its ability to attract and activate monocytes.

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