The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) directly upregulates production of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acutely as well as in chronically infected cells of monocytic lineage. In addition, IL-6 synergizes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the induction of latent HIV expression. Unlike TNF-alpha, upregulation of viral expression induced by IL-6 alone does not occur at the transcriptional level and it is not associated with accumulation of HIV RNA. However, when IL-6 and TNF-alpha synergistically stimulate HIV production, accumulation of HIV RNA and increased transcription are observed, indicating that IL-6 affects HIV expression at multiple (transcriptional and post-transcriptional) levels.
Interleukin 6 induces human immunodeficiency virus expression in infected monocytic cells alone and in synergy with tumor necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.
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G Poli, P Bressler, A Kinter, E Duh, W C Timmer, A Rabson, J S Justement, S Stanley, A S Fauci; Interleukin 6 induces human immunodeficiency virus expression in infected monocytic cells alone and in synergy with tumor necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.. J Exp Med 1 July 1990; 172 (1): 151–158. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.172.1.151
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