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Issues

Insights

Zhang et al. identify a mutation in the APP ectodomain in exon 5, APPS198P, that accelerates folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and transport through the Golgi network to late vesicular compartments, enhancing the accumulation of Aβ aggregates.

Wahlster et al. describe a multigenerational family with inherited thrombocytopenia. Long-read sequencing and RNA sequencing revealed a complex structural variant, causing overexpression of a pathogenic gain-of-function WAC-ANKRD26 fusion transcript.

Innate immune cells are crucial in the development and regulation of cardiovascular disease. In this issue, two groups, Davis et al. and Li et al., describe the impact of the innate immune system on the development of cardiovascular disease.

Viewpoint

JEM 125th Anniversary

An excerpt from Ralph Steinman’s Harvey Lecture describing the discovery of dendritic cells.

JEM 125th Anniversary

Shimon Sakaguchi recounts the work that lead to the identification of regulatory T cells.

Reviews

In Special Collection:
Lipid Mediators in Immunity

In this review, the authors focus on ferroptosis in innate and adaptive immunity. They also discuss and highlight the impact of ferroptotic death in infection, inflammation, and immune diseases.

Perspectives

SARS-CoV-2 is the trigger of MIS-C, which suggests that other viruses may trigger different forms of Kawasaki disease. The discovery of inborn errors of immunity underlying MIS-C would facilitate that of inborn errors of immunity to viruses underlying Kawasaki disease.

Brief Definitive Reports

Wahlster, Verboon, et al. identify and functionally characterize a complex structural variant in a family with thrombocytopenia that results in a WAC-ANKRD26 fusion transcript encoding a shortened form of ANKRD26, whose expression during hematopoiesis is deregulated, thereby resulting in disease.

In Special Collection:
Lipid Mediators in Immunity

Vijay et al. identify that phosphatidylserine exposed on dead or dying red blood cell membranes signals via Axl on B cells to promote polyclonal B cell activation and plasmablast differentiation during infections that are associated with hemolysis.

Using mice lacking a single self-peptide, the authors show that altered T cell selection on a single self-ligand predisposes mice to organ-specific T cell infiltration. Proper selection directs cells into the regulatory T cell lineage with negligible evidence of deletion.

Colonization of visceral organs with melanoma in humanized NSG-SGM3 mice is dependent upon human CD33+CD11b+CD117+ progenitor cells. A gene signature of KIT/CD117–expressing CD33+ subset correlates with decreased overall survival in TCGA melanoma samples and represents a novel candidate biomarker.

Technical Advances and Resources

Single cell RNAseq analyses were performed on T cells from MC38 and CT26 tumor models. PCA-based sub-clustering and STARTRAC analyses revealed fine-tuned T cell subsets and dynamic in tumor. CCR8 was identified as a novel target on Tregs to synergize with anti–PD-1 for cancer immunotherapy.

Articles

The study demonstrates that the S198P mutation in APP promotes accelerated folding and egress to late compartments leading to enhanced Aβ production and deposition in vivo.

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury generates sterile inflammation sites in which neutrophils are activated and cause myocardial reperfusion injury. During this event, the neuronal guidance molecule netrin-1 is released by activated neutrophils and dampens myocardial inflammation by activating adenosine receptors (ADORA2B) expressed on myeloid immune cells.

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a life-threatening disease characterized by macrophage infiltration contributing to pathological vascular remodeling. Herein, we demonstrate that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is a critical regulator of inflammation during AAA development and cell-specific inhibition reduces AAA progression.

Lanz et al. reveal that IFITM3, an effector protein of the IFN response, can compete with influenza virus glycoproteins for incorporation into viral particles. This decrease in viral glycoprotein content sensitizes influenza virus to antibody-mediated neutralization, thereby impacting the severity of influenza disease.

Higa et al. show that chronic interleukin-1β exposure primes multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells for myelopoiesis by upregulating myeloid differentiation programs and repressing stem gene programs in a Cebpa-dependent manner. Consequently, interleukin-1 potently selects for Cebpa loss in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

In Special Collection:
Stem Cell Collection 2021

In this article, Chavez et al. show that the myeloid transcription factor PU.1 plays an essential role in maintaining hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence and homeostatic protein synthesis rates, thereby regulating HSC pool size and cell cycle activity during chronic inflammatory stress.

Loe et al. demonstrate dosage-dependent roles of Arid1a, whereby the loss of its single copy promotes tumor progression, but tumor cells lacking both copies exhibit a survival disadvantage. This finding leads to a novel combined targeting approach for the effective inhibition of Arid1a heterozygous tumor cell growth.

Tumor recurrence is frequent in oral squamous cell carcinomas and leads to poor survival. This study is the first demonstration of the pivotal role of adjacent histologically normal epithelium in lateral invasion, with vital implications for understanding tumor recurrence and field cancerization.

Cachexia increases morbidity and mortality. Rupert et al. show PDAC cachexia results from tissue crosstalk via an IL-6 trans-signaling loop. Malignant cells signal via IL-6 to muscle and fat, muscle to fat via sIL6R, and fat to muscle via lipids and IL-6.

This article shows Manf, a feeding-induced hepatokine, can directly promote browning of white adipose tissue via the p38 MAPK pathway and consequently protect mice against high-fat diet–induced obesity.

The authors demonstrate that loss of ICOS-dependent PI3-kinase signaling supports visceral adipose tissue (VAT) TR abundance and function, and correlates with reduced adipose inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity after a high-fat diet. This highlights a new pathway regulating VAT-TR activity.

Assessing the self-antigens causing type 1 diabetes remains challenging. This study shows that blood leukocytes contain immunogenic peptides with compatible sequences to those presented in the pancreatic islets, representing a feasible strategy for probing a target autoimmune tissue.

ID2 is an essential transcription factor for natural killer cell development. Through epistasis analysis, Li et al. show that ID2 controls the amplitude of TCF1 and allows for its temporal downregulation, thereby supporting natural killer cell maturation.

Hochheiser et al. identify Ptpn2 and KLRG1 as new regulators of CD103+ CD8+ TRM cells in mouse skin. While KLRG1 inhibits TRM formation, genetic Ptpn2 deficiency increases the protective function of TRM cells in infection but aggravates TRM-dependent autoimmunity.

In Special Collection:
Lipid Mediators in Immunity

The authors show that autophagy in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) dampens collagen-induced arthritis by regulating two distinct pathways: the promotion of T reg cells in LNs and the inhibition of S1P-dependent migration of pathogenic Th17 cells in inflamed organs.

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