The effect of dilution of the interstitial fluids on the responsiveness of the toad urinary bladder to antidiuretic hormones has been examined in vivo and in vitro. Toads were given periodic injections with vasopressin while in water so that their plasma osmolality fell below 190 mosmoles/kg H2O. The hydraulic conductivity of bladders which had been removed from the animal and fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde was 10-fold less in overhydrated toads than in normally hydrated controls. A similar inhibitory phenomenon was observed in in vitro studies, when the tonicity of Ringer's fluid in which the bladders were suspended was lowered from its isotonic value. Mannitol, but not urea, could be effectively substituted for one-half of the NaCl content of Ringer's fluid. In other experiments it has been shown that the responsiveness of the bladder to vasotocin is depressed during bulk water movement across the tissue. This "flux inhibition" was found to depend upon the velocity and the duration of water flow from mucosa to the serosa. It is suggested that the responsiveness of the toad bladder to antidiuretic hormones diminishes as the effective osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluids declines.

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