By means of 1 M NaCl isolated lymphocyte chromosomes can be separated into two fractions, each of which contains nucleoprotein. The fraction soluble in M NaCl consists largely of desoxyribose nucleohistone, and constitutes 90 to 92 per cent of the mass of the chromosome. The insoluble residue (the residual chromosome is a coiled thread containing some 12 to 14 per cent of ribose nucleic and about one-fifth as much desoxyribose nucleic acid; the residual chromosome accounts for 8 to 10 per cent of the mass of the chromosome. The staining of chromosomes—whether by the Feulgen procedure, by hematoxylin, orcein, or by basic dyes such as crystal violet—is due to the nucleohistone fraction which contains about 96 per cent of the nucleic acid of the chromosome. The form of the chromosome is due primarily to the protein thread of the residual chromosome. This thread is the only linear structure of microscopic dimensions in the chromosome that is not readily dispersed. When chromosomes are broken, it must be supposed that a break is made in the protein thread of the residual chromosome. The foregoing provides evidence for considering the residual chromosome to be the basis of the linear order of the genes. This would mean either that the residual chromosome is a structure around which the genes are organized or that the genes form part of its substance.

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