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Standard Abbreviations

3D, three-dimensional


µA, microampere
pA, picoampere
Å, angstrom (10-10 m)
Ab, antibody
AFM, atomic force microscopy
Ag, antigen
ANOVA, analysis of variance
atm, atmosphere
ATP, adenosine triphosphate (also ADP, AMP, CTP, UDP, etc.)


bp, basepair
Bq, Becquerel
BSA, bovine serum albumin


C, coulomb
 µC, microcolombs
°C, degree Celsius
cAMP, cyclic AMP (also cGMP)
cDNA, complementary DNA
CFP, cyan fluorescent protein
CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
CHO, Chinese hamster ovary
Ci, curie(s)
 mCi, millicurie(s)
 µCi, microcurie(s)
CICR, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release
Cm, membrane capacitance
CNG, cyclic nucleotide–gated
cpm, counts per minute
CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats


D, dalton
kD, kilodalton
d, day
diam, diameter
dpm, disintegrations per minute
DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
dsRNA, double-stranded RNA
DTT, dithiothreitol


ED50, 50% effective dose
EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGTA, ethyleneglycol-bis(ß-amino- ethyl ether)-N,N,N',N `-tetra acetic acid
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM, electron microscopy
 cryo-EM, cryo electron microscopy
EPR, electron force microscopy
ER, endoplasmic reticulum


FBS, fetal bovine serum
FCS, fetal calf serum
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate
FRAP, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
FRET, Förster resonance energy transfer


g, gram
kg, kilogram
G, conductance
g, unit of gravity
GFP, green fluorescent protein


h, hour
HEPES, N-2-hydroxyethyl-piperazine-N`-2-ethanesulfonic acid
HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography


I, current
Ig, immunoglobulin
IL, interleukin (e.g., IL-2)
IU, international unit
i-V (and g-V), single-channel current voltage relation
I-V (and G-V), membrane current-voltage (or conductance-voltage) relation


J, Joule
kJ, kiloJoule


°K, degree kelvin
kb, kilobase
kB, Boltzmann constant
kcal, kilocalorie(s)
Kd, dissociation constant
Ki, inhibition constant
Km, Michaelis constant


LD50, 50% lethal dose


m, meter
 cm3 (not cc), cubic centimeter(s)
 µm or 10-6 m (not µ) micrometer(s)
M, Molar mAb, monoclonal antibody
MD, molecular dynamics
MEM, minimum essential medium
Mes, 2-(N -morpholino) ethane-sulfonic acid
µeq, microequivalent(s)
meq, milliequivalent(s)
MHC, major histocompatibility complex
min, minute(s)
ml, milliliter (but liter)
 µl, microliter
mm Hg, millimeters of mercury
mo, month
mol, mole
mol wt, molecular weight
MOPS, morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr, relative molecular mass
MTS, methanethiosulfonate


N, normal (concentration of ionizable groups)
NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (also NADH, NADP, NADPH, etc.)
ND, not determined
NMDG (and/or NMDA), N-methyl-D-glucamine (or -arginine)
No., number
NS, not significant


OD, optical density
ORF, open reading frame
osM, osmolar
osmol, osmole(s)
 µosmol, microosmole(s)
 mosmol, milliosmole(s)


Pa, Pascal
 kPa, kiloPascal
PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
PCR, polymerase chain reaction
PG, prostaglandin
Pi, inorganic orthophosphate
pI, isoelectric point
PIPES, piperazine-N,N `-bis(2-ethane sulfonic acid)
PKA, protein kinase A (also PKC, PKG)
PLA2, phospholipase A2 (also PLC)
PMA, phorbol myristate acetate
PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride


R, gas constant
Rf, retardation factor
RFLP, restriction fragment length ,polymorphism
RIA, radioimmunoassay
RMSD, root mean square deviation/difference
RNA, ribonucleic acid
 mRNA, messenger RNA
 tRNA, transfer RNA
rpm, revolutions per minute
RYR, ryanodine receptor


s, second(s)
SD, standard deviation
SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate
SEM, standard error of the mean
SERCA, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase
siRNA, small interfering RNA
sp act, specific activity
SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum


T, temperature in degrees Kelvin
t test, Student's t test
t1/2, half-life, half-time
TEA, tetraethylammonium
TIRF, total internal reflection fluorescence
TLC, thin-layer chromatography
Tris, tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane


U, unit
U, unit
UV, ultraviolet


V, volt
mV, millivolt
Vmax, maximum velocity
vol, volume


W, watt(s) (voltampere)
wk, week
wt, weight
WT, wild type


YFP, yellow fluorescent protein
yr, year
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