The sodium/potassium-ATPase (NKA) is the enzyme that establishes gradients of sodium and potassium across the plasma membrane. NKA activity is tightly regulated for different physiological contexts through interactions with single-span transmembrane peptides, the FXYD proteins. This diverse family of regulators has in common a domain containing a Phe-X-Tyr-Asp (FXYD) motif, two conserved glycines, and one serine residue. In humans, there are seven tissue-specific FXYD proteins that differentially modulate NKA kinetics as appropriate for each system, providing dynamic responsiveness to changing physiological conditions. Our understanding of how FXYD proteins contribute to homeostasis has benefitted from recent advances described in this review: biochemical and biophysical studies have provided insight into regulatory mechanisms, genetic models have uncovered remarkable complexity of FXYD function in integrated physiological systems, new posttranslational modifications have been identified, high-resolution structural studies have revealed new details of the regulatory interaction with NKA, and new clinical correlations have been uncovered. In this review, we address the structural determinants of diverse FXYD functions and the special roles of FXYDs in various physiological systems. We also discuss the possible roles of FXYDs in protein trafficking and regulation of non-NKA targets.