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Table I.

Endogenous Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Acting at the Mitochondrial Level


Target protein

Endogenous
 modulators

Viral modulators
 or analogs

Pharmacological
 modulators (examples)
PBR
 
  Endozepine
 Platelet-activating factor
  M11L (myxoma virus)
 
  PK11195, XK469, FGIN-1-27,
 4′-chlorodiazepam, Ro5-4864, BBL22,
 protoporphyrin IX, rasagiline
VDAC NADH HVB-X proteina BH4 domain peptides 
 Hexokinase II   
 Bcl-2, Bax   
ANT ATP, ADP Vpr (HIV-1) Atractyloside, bongkrekate
 Bcl-2, Bax vMIA (cytomegalovirus) lonidamine, CD437, MT-21 
 Oxidative stress   
Cyclophilin D Misfolded proteins? Unknown Cyclosporin A 
   N-methyl-4-valine-cyclosporin 
   N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin 
Bcl-2/Bax BH3-only proteins BORFB2F, BALF1 Peptides containing BH3 motifs 
 Kinases + phosphatases 5-HL.A179L, HVS-Bcl-2 HA-14-1, BH3I-1, BH3I-2 
 Proteases M11 Antimycin A 
Hexokinase II GlucoseUnknown Unknown 
 Glucose-6-phosphate 
 
 

Target protein

Endogenous
 modulators

Viral modulators
 or analogs

Pharmacological
 modulators (examples)
PBR
 
  Endozepine
 Platelet-activating factor
  M11L (myxoma virus)
 
  PK11195, XK469, FGIN-1-27,
 4′-chlorodiazepam, Ro5-4864, BBL22,
 protoporphyrin IX, rasagiline
VDAC NADH HVB-X proteina BH4 domain peptides 
 Hexokinase II   
 Bcl-2, Bax   
ANT ATP, ADP Vpr (HIV-1) Atractyloside, bongkrekate
 Bcl-2, Bax vMIA (cytomegalovirus) lonidamine, CD437, MT-21 
 Oxidative stress   
Cyclophilin D Misfolded proteins? Unknown Cyclosporin A 
   N-methyl-4-valine-cyclosporin 
   N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin 
Bcl-2/Bax BH3-only proteins BORFB2F, BALF1 Peptides containing BH3 motifs 
 Kinases + phosphatases 5-HL.A179L, HVS-Bcl-2 HA-14-1, BH3I-1, BH3I-2 
 Proteases M11 Antimycin A 
Hexokinase II GlucoseUnknown Unknown 
 Glucose-6-phosphate 
 
 
a

HVB-X has also been described to inhibit apoptosis.

Underline, apoptosis inducers; bold, apoptosis inhibitors.

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