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Table II.

SNPs in the region flanking CTGF are associated with severe HF in Sudanese and Brazilian subjects infected with S. mansoni

 Sudanese sample Brazilian sample 
 SNP Genotype Controls Cases OR 95% CI SNP Genotype Controls Cases OR 95% CI 
   % %      % %    
Univariate analysis rs1257705 AA 90.1 98.4 6.68 0.86–51.7 0.069 rs1257705 AA     NS 
 rs12526196 TT 90.2 98.4 6.8 0.89–52.8 0.066 rs12526196 TT     NS 
 rs3037970 −/−     NS rs3037970 −/− 80.5 90.2   0.12 
 rs6918698 CC     NS rs6918698 CC + CG 63 83.9 3.05 1.33–6.98 0.008 
 rs9402373 CC 78.1 94.9 5.22 1.53–17.7 0.008 rs9402373 CC 61.3 80.3 2.57 1.18–5.64 0.018 
Multivariate analysis rs12526196 TT   7.26 0.93–56.8 0.059 rs6918698 CC   4.92 2–12 5 × 10−4 
 rs9402373 CC   5.23 1.5–18 0.008 rs9402373 CC   4.25 1.79–10.08 9 × 10−4 
 Sudanese sample Brazilian sample 
 SNP Genotype Controls Cases OR 95% CI SNP Genotype Controls Cases OR 95% CI 
   % %      % %    
Univariate analysis rs1257705 AA 90.1 98.4 6.68 0.86–51.7 0.069 rs1257705 AA     NS 
 rs12526196 TT 90.2 98.4 6.8 0.89–52.8 0.066 rs12526196 TT     NS 
 rs3037970 −/−     NS rs3037970 −/− 80.5 90.2   0.12 
 rs6918698 CC     NS rs6918698 CC + CG 63 83.9 3.05 1.33–6.98 0.008 
 rs9402373 CC 78.1 94.9 5.22 1.53–17.7 0.008 rs9402373 CC 61.3 80.3 2.57 1.18–5.64 0.018 
Multivariate analysis rs12526196 TT   7.26 0.93–56.8 0.059 rs6918698 CC   4.92 2–12 5 × 10−4 
 rs9402373 CC   5.23 1.5–18 0.008 rs9402373 CC   4.25 1.79–10.08 9 × 10−4 

The two principal schistosome strains that cause HF are S. japonicum in Asia and S. mansoni in Africa and South America. We investigated whether HF in an S. mansoni–endemic region in Sudan and Brazil was also affected by CTGF allelic variants. CTGF polymorphisms that were associated with HF in Chinese fishermen were genotyped in both samples. Case and control phenotypes are described in Materials and methods and in Table S1. We first tested for associations between the SNPs and HF phenotypes separately (univariate analysis); the SNPs were then tested simultaneously (multivariate analysis), including SNPs rs12526196, rs1257705, and rs9402373. Genotype is the aggravating genotype. In Sudanese farmers (n = 214, 62 cases and 152 controls), the covariate was age only. In Brazilians (n = 136, 61 cases and 75 controls), there were no covariate. P, p-value.

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