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Table 2.
Clinical features of 22 APS-1 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Patient no.Days from symptom onset to hospital admissionCOVID-19 severity (NIH ordinal scale score)COVID-19 complications (other than hypoxemia related)Duration of hospital stay (d)Hypoxemia supporta (nadir SpO2)Intubation duration (d)Laboratory abnormalitiesRadiographical abnormalitiesTreatmentOutcome
Critical (7) Hypotension requiring dobutamine/ norepinephrine infusion; pneumococcal pneumonia; sepsis-induced ventricular dysfunction (EF, 30%); C. difficile infection 37 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) N/A Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose hydrocortisone, LOP/RIT, ribavirin, HCQ, piperacillin/ tazobactam Survival; low DLCO (55%) 2 mo after discharge 
Critical (7) None 12 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose hydrocortisone Survival 
Critical (7) None 17 Mechanical ventilation (80%) 11 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑ferritin, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose methyl-prednisolone, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, HCQ Survival 
Mild (4) None No No N/A Bilateral GGO None Survival 
10 Moderate–severe (5) Antibiotic-associated diarrhea 10 No (93%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose prednisone, tocilizumab, vancomycin, ertapenem, levofloxacin, HCQ Survival 
Not hospitalized Mild (1) None No No Not tested Not performed None Survival 
Critical (8) Bacterial sepsis (Acinetobacter, Klebsiella), pneumothorax (twice), acute renal failure (requiring hemodialysis) 47 Mechanical ventilation (60%) 28 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑creatinine, ↑D-dimer, ↑IL-6 Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose prednisone, tofacitinib, cefepime, sulbactam, polymixin B, linezolid, caspofungin Death 
Critical (8) None 15 Mechanical ventilation (82%) N/A Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Death 
Moderate–severe (5) None 15 Nasal cannula (86%) No ↑CRP, ↑LDH Bilateral, multiple GGO No Survival 
10 Not hospitalized Mild (1) None No No Not tested Not performed No Survival 
11 Mild (4) None 12 No No ↓ALC Bilateral GGO No Survival 
12 Critical (7) None 26 Mechanical ventilation (82%) N/A ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab, ribavirin, azithromycin, cefepime, vancomycin, voriconazole Survival 
13 Critical (8) None 14 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) N/A N/A High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab Death 
14 Critical (7) Bacterial pneumonia, bacteremia, and sepsis (Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, E. coli), ventricular arrhythmia >60 Mechanical ventilation and ECMO (N/A) 42 ↑CRP, ↑ferritin, ↓ALT, ↑AST, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Survival, tracheostomy 
15 Moderate (4) Pulmonary embolism 18 No No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑D-dimer Bilateral GGO High-dose hydrocortisone, remdesivir, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, apixaban Survival 
16 Critical (8) Bacterial pneumonia (Enterobacter) pneumothorax 13 Mechanical ventilation (60%) 12 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Death 
17 Critical (7) Transient diabetes insipidus 20 Mechanical ventilation (80%) ↑CRP, ↑AST, ↑IL-6 Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose betamethasone, plasmapheresis Survival 
18 Critical (7) Hemoptysis 56 Mechanical ventilation (87%) 25 ↑CRP, ↑ferritin, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, IFN-β, convalescent plasma, plasmapheresis Survival 
19 Not hospitalized Mild (2) None No No Not tested Not performed Prolonged course of stress-dose steroids Survival 
20 Mild (4) None No No N/A Bilateral GGO IFN-β, convalescent plasma Survival 
21 Moderate–severe (5) GI bleeding 21 Nasal cannula (87%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer, Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab, meropenem, fluconazole, IVIg Survival 
22 Moderate–severe (5) None Nasal cannula (89%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑ferritin Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tofacitinib, favipiravir, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, IVIg Survival 
Patient no.Days from symptom onset to hospital admissionCOVID-19 severity (NIH ordinal scale score)COVID-19 complications (other than hypoxemia related)Duration of hospital stay (d)Hypoxemia supporta (nadir SpO2)Intubation duration (d)Laboratory abnormalitiesRadiographical abnormalitiesTreatmentOutcome
Critical (7) Hypotension requiring dobutamine/ norepinephrine infusion; pneumococcal pneumonia; sepsis-induced ventricular dysfunction (EF, 30%); C. difficile infection 37 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) N/A Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose hydrocortisone, LOP/RIT, ribavirin, HCQ, piperacillin/ tazobactam Survival; low DLCO (55%) 2 mo after discharge 
Critical (7) None 12 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose hydrocortisone Survival 
Critical (7) None 17 Mechanical ventilation (80%) 11 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑ferritin, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose methyl-prednisolone, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, HCQ Survival 
Mild (4) None No No N/A Bilateral GGO None Survival 
10 Moderate–severe (5) Antibiotic-associated diarrhea 10 No (93%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose prednisone, tocilizumab, vancomycin, ertapenem, levofloxacin, HCQ Survival 
Not hospitalized Mild (1) None No No Not tested Not performed None Survival 
Critical (8) Bacterial sepsis (Acinetobacter, Klebsiella), pneumothorax (twice), acute renal failure (requiring hemodialysis) 47 Mechanical ventilation (60%) 28 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑creatinine, ↑D-dimer, ↑IL-6 Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose prednisone, tofacitinib, cefepime, sulbactam, polymixin B, linezolid, caspofungin Death 
Critical (8) None 15 Mechanical ventilation (82%) N/A Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Death 
Moderate–severe (5) None 15 Nasal cannula (86%) No ↑CRP, ↑LDH Bilateral, multiple GGO No Survival 
10 Not hospitalized Mild (1) None No No Not tested Not performed No Survival 
11 Mild (4) None 12 No No ↓ALC Bilateral GGO No Survival 
12 Critical (7) None 26 Mechanical ventilation (82%) N/A ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab, ribavirin, azithromycin, cefepime, vancomycin, voriconazole Survival 
13 Critical (8) None 14 Mechanical ventilation (N/A) N/A N/A High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab Death 
14 Critical (7) Bacterial pneumonia, bacteremia, and sepsis (Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, E. coli), ventricular arrhythmia >60 Mechanical ventilation and ECMO (N/A) 42 ↑CRP, ↑ferritin, ↓ALT, ↑AST, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Survival, tracheostomy 
15 Moderate (4) Pulmonary embolism 18 No No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑D-dimer Bilateral GGO High-dose hydrocortisone, remdesivir, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, apixaban Survival 
16 Critical (8) Bacterial pneumonia (Enterobacter) pneumothorax 13 Mechanical ventilation (60%) 12 ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone Death 
17 Critical (7) Transient diabetes insipidus 20 Mechanical ventilation (80%) ↑CRP, ↑AST, ↑IL-6 Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose betamethasone, plasmapheresis Survival 
18 Critical (7) Hemoptysis 56 Mechanical ventilation (87%) 25 ↑CRP, ↑ferritin, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑D-dimer Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, IFN-β, convalescent plasma, plasmapheresis Survival 
19 Not hospitalized Mild (2) None No No Not tested Not performed Prolonged course of stress-dose steroids Survival 
20 Mild (4) None No No N/A Bilateral GGO IFN-β, convalescent plasma Survival 
21 Moderate–severe (5) GI bleeding 21 Nasal cannula (87%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑LDH, ↑D-dimer, Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tocilizumab, meropenem, fluconazole, IVIg Survival 
22 Moderate–severe (5) None Nasal cannula (89%) No ↑CRP, ↓ALC, ↑AST, ↑ALT, ↑ferritin Bilateral, multiple GGO High-dose dexamethasone, tofacitinib, favipiravir, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, IVIg Survival 

DLCO, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide; C. difficile, Clostridium difficile; EF, ejection fraction; E. coli, Escherichia coli; GGO, ground-glass opacity; GI, gastrointestinal; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; LOP/RIT, lopinavir/ritonavir; N/A, not available.

a

Hypoxemia defined as SpO2 <94 mmHg.

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